This document contains licenses and notices for open source software used in this product. This white paper outlines the Cisco strategy for the transport network that will underpin the worldwide adoption of 5G technologies and delivery of. Use data analytics to drive innovation and value throughout your network Python-based case studies reflecting Cisco Customer Experience. GUITAR TECH WORKBENCH Вы можете прийти к нам.
When referring specifically to the network infrastructure, it is necessary to meet the following requirements:. Transport slice management — This refers to the ability to create, modify, and delete a complete 3GPP network slice, including any actions required to the transport layer itself. It includes per-slice operations, administration, and maintenance OAM capabilities to allow both the slice application owner and the operator to monitor the health and performance of the slice.
Resource reservation — This refers to the ability to reserve transport resources for a transport slice. Slice isolation — Any single transport slice should be isolated from other transport slices at the proper performance, operational, security, and reliability levels that are dictated by the service policy of the application or end user. Abstraction — This refers to the ability to utilize resources to model and build a transport infrastructure suitable for the needs of a slice.
In both cases, they need to meet the requirements outlined above, but the difference between them revolves around the level of resource sharing between different slices. In the case of a hard slice, the slice has dedicated resources particularly bandwidth dedicated to it and is not shared with other slices.
Alternatively, the soft slice resources can be shared between slices, while maintaining proper SLA requirements, as well as return the resources to the network when the resources are no longer needed. Cisco believes that a converged, end-to-end packet infrastructure, beginning in the access layer and stretching via the network data center all the way to the core, based upon segment routing and packet-based QoS, provides the underlying xHaul transport network see Figure 3.
This provides the most flexibility of application placement, the best scalability, the most robust reliability, and the leanest operational costs. Segment Routing is a technology invented by Cisco. Subsequently, a number of key operators drove the definition and adoption further, which has then attracted considerable interest from the wider operator and vendor community. Segment Routing is based on a source routing paradigm, where the source node defines the path that a packet is going to take through the network.
Very importantly, this means that the intermediate nodes do not need to hold any flow state, which greatly simplifies the network control plane. Figure 4 outlines the Segment Routing architecture. There are multiple types of segments defined in Segment Routing and it is quite a broad topic. The Segment Routing control plane can run purely as a distributed control plane, or where more complex forwarding paradigms such as inter-domain routing are required, it can use a hybrid approach.
The hybrid approach splits the responsibilities: the routers distributed through the network host some functions while external SDN controllers calculate others, for example the definition of Segment Routing policies and inter-domain paths. In both approaches, the distributed routers run those functions needed to rapidly distribute the link state database, as well as calculate the shortest path routing tables, monitor the links to the attached nodes, and rapidly recover in the event of a failure.
In some cases, these networks are all-encompassing and involve all the topics of orchestration, automation, service assurance, and management of flows within the network. In others definitions, it refers purely to management of flows in the network. For the following discussion, we examine only the flow management component of SDN and cover other vital functions such as orchestration, automation, and service assurance elsewhere.
As noted above, Segment Routing does not require an external controller function, but as the segment-routing-policy use cases become more complex, or the network increases in scale and extends beyond a single domain, then the use of an SDN controller becomes more important.
Southbound into the transport network, it collects the topology using standards-based protocols such as BGP-LS and subsequently is able to compute and deploy Segment Routing policies across the network. Segment Routing policies and Segment Routing paths the terms are interchangeable are the methods used to implement an SLA in the network infrastructure.
The Segment Routing control and data plane concurrently supports different SLA types while running on the same underlying networking infrastructure. Examples include:. Shortest path routing combined with equal-cost multipath ECMP. This is the default policy supported by Segment Routing and is calculated on the network equipment by the IGP. It matches exactly the way an IP network forwards traffic, and is implemented by using a Segment Routing prefix segment.
Flexible Algorithm commonly referred to as Flex-Algo. For many services this approach is sufficient, however this approach cannot, for example, take into account real-time link latency, utilization, and loss, whether an ECMP shares links that use the same underlying fiber. Flex-Algo is a new capability in segment routing that enables an operator to define their own custom flexible algorithm, based on a wide range of variables, including link latency, loss, bandwidth, and shared risk link groups SRLG , to achieve a specific aim.
For example, an operator may have an IP network using highly reliable fiber paths which they own and less reliable fiber paths which they lease and they want to support a highly reliable, low latency IP service. Flex-Algo can achieve this by building a routing table that optimizes based on real-time link latency, only on links owned by the operator.
Other commonly discussed Flex-Algo use cases include bandwidth-guaranteed paths and routing between ingress and egress points using disjoint paths. In this case, the path is explicitly specified and coded into the packet header at the source but can consist of a mix of prefix and adjacency segments.
This allows a path to be a mix of segments whereby one segment might be shortest path first SPF routed with ECMP and others explicitly routed. In this case, the segment information is distributed by the IGP but the path calculation is done either in a distributed fashion or via the centralized SDN controller.
This form of traffic engineering can support low-latency paths, bandwidth-guaranteed paths, and disjoint paths. In this case, the SR TE path consists of a set of adjacency segments that guide the traffic on the network on a link-by-link basis. Using Segment Routing policies provides a rich set of capabilities to deliver SLAs across the xHaul transport network.
However, to make use of them, it is necessary to map the customer and operator services to the appropriate Segment Routing policies, so that the service traffic gets the desired behavior from the transport network. Segment Routing provides this capability via a function known as traffic steering. This feature allows service traffic, for example, a layer 2 or layer 3 service, to be steered at ingress into a Segment Routing policy that provides a path to the service endpoint with the requested SLA.
This is implemented either manually via configuration on the ingress router, or automatically using a function called Segment Routing automated steering see Figure 5. In the automatic case, the ingress service traffic is steered into the appropriate Segment Routing policy, based on policy information conveyed at the service or VPN layer, which informs the underlay transport network how to treat the traffic.
Some xHaul transport networks will be extremely large and built using multiple domains. In these environments, it is important to isolate the domains as much as possible. At the same time, the operator needs to be able to provision end-to-end services that span domains. This allows an operator to build large complex environments using minimal information exchange between domains, and thus reducing overhead on the network equipment. When a service needs to span multiple domains, BGP exchanges service routes that have the appropriate SLA identifiers attached.
Although not technically part of WAN, 5G proposes that network data centers will be hosting components of the network control and data planes. Therefore, it is vitally important that the network data center environment be tightly coupled with the transport environment. This will allow VPNs, associated with network slices, to be easily orchestrated and seamlessly extended from the WAN infrastructure into the network data center and vice versa.
This problem is solved by linking VPNs created in the data center with service networks created in the xHaul transport networks. This combination enables operators the flexibility to support both infrastructure services and the emerging SD-WAN market space, which is essential in building a converged transport infrastructure.
Segment routing with MPLS is an ideal technology for a converged transport architecture, since it is capable of addressing the requirements of 5G, while simultaneously supporting fixed, enterprise, and consumer services. It provides:. The expectation is that over time SRv6 will gradually replace segment routing with MPLS as the underlay packet technology.
This will take time as the standards need to be completed, MPLS to SRv6 migration techniques need to be developed, and more importantly, a range of chipsets need to come to market that can support SRv6 on an end-to-end basis. Currently, high-end programmable chipsets are available that support SRv6, however to get the full benefits of the technology, SRv6 functionality needs to be incorporated into low-end chipsets suitable for edge networking equipment and even for server network interface cards NICs.
SRv6 is coming to exhibit the same capabilities and benefits as MPLS, but the technology goes further in scaling, simplifying, and reducing the overheads associated with running a large-scale infrastructure that incorporates packet transport combined with edge computing. It also offers true programmability of the packets through the network, from both a path and services perspective. This means that the converged network infrastructure needs to support a wide range of packet-based SLAs concurrently.
As described above, segment routing functions such as SR-PCE, Flex-Algo, and automated steering provide mechanisms to engineer different services and traffic types onto appropriate paths within the network. In addition, packet-based DiffServ QoS, combined with appropriate class-aware capacity-planning tools, such as Cisco WAN Automation Engine WAE , are needed to ensure packets associated with different services are treated appropriately.
Segment Routing supports a rich set of tools to monitor the performance of the underlay Segment Routing packet infrastructure. These range from traditional tools, such as ping and traceroute that have been adapted for Segment Routing environments, and which are capable of testing SPF paths, Segment Routing policy paths, or specific paths programmed with Flex-Algo. Networks can run features like Segment Routing link loss and delay measurements either on an ad-hoc basis or continuously to provide dynamic measurement of link delays.
In addition to tools for monitoring the Segment Routing layer, a comprehensive set of tools exists to monitor the performance of different services. These tools are dependent on the type of services running, but for example, in layer 3 includes facilities to monitor connectivity, delay, and loss on a per QoS class performance basis. A packet-based environment combining VPN and Segment Routing technology provides very flexible mechanisms to support both hard and soft slicing concurrently over a common transport network infrastructure see Figure 7.
Within the core transport network, Segment Routing provides the means to share resources using shortest path routing and statistical multiplexing combined with DiffServ QoS to create a soft slice. VPN solutions combined with service-orientated OAM and per-VPN Segment Routing traffic steering provide routing isolation, end-user visibility of the slice, and the means to steer traffic associated with a slice into the appropriate Segment Routing policy to meet any required SLA.
This approach enables the operator to support hard and soft slicing approaches concurrently on the same transport network, and is extremely scalable and flexible. It allows network slices to be built for each different 5G use case or for specific customers, such as mobile virtual network operators MVNO and enterprise customers, or a combination of both where, for example, an enterprise customer has their own slice created within a higher-level enhanced mobile broadband eMMB slice.
This means that routers and switches connect directly to one or more dark fibers or DWDM Lambdas, where each Lambda currently supports bandwidths up to Gbps in the near future it will be Gbps. This alleviates the complexity and cost associated with additional intermediate switching layers such, as an OTN TDM hierarchy, which adds little value for carrying IP services. Bandwidth requirements will continue to rise, and in many networks point-to-point IP capacity requirements will match or exceed the capacity of a single DWDM Lambda, driven by increasing fixed and mobile access speeds and new services.
In these high-capacity, high-growth environments, continuation of the current packet-network design philosophy, whereby packets flow directly on top of a photonic base layer, is simple and scalable. This approach, when augmented with segment routing, IP QoS, and statistical multiplexing will meet the needs of 5G, emerging fixed access solutions and the end-user services. Security challenges in 5G networks are a superset of those found in existing networks.
Familiar challenges include physical security, management plane security, control plane security, and potentially exploitable bugs on routing devices. Given that most aggregation devices will be placed in untrusted or partially trusted environments, strong emphasis on tamper-proofing is essential.
Beyond these questions, 5G enlarges the problem with network data center compute elements, software running on those elements, and new orchestration capabilities which must be also be secured. The foundation of a trusted network are trusted devices and all trust must begin in hardware. Each Cisco network device includes trust Anchor technology that establishes a hardware root of trust for software integrity and strong encryption.
This hardware security component provides a unique cryptographic identify of each platform component and is used as the basis for our advanced secure boot infrastructure. With hardware-rooted secure boot infrastructure, Cisco platforms provide significantly stronger protections against compromises of the firmware and operating system than typical firmware-based secure-boot infrastructures such as those used in mainstream x86 platforms.
This, coupled with advanced runtime OS protections and control-plane protections, allows Cisco platforms unique capabilities to establish and maintain trust in exposed environments. The trusted platform also establishes a secure foundation for additional security services such as strong cryptographic protection for secret data and key material within the router.
As operators are now increasingly deploying access devices in insecure remote locations, this built-in hardware-keyed protection for secret data at rest is required to maintain trust and control of critical network services. If it is not properly designed, implemented, and managed, it can have a dramatically negative effect on the efficiency, reliability, and capacity of the mobile network.
Subscribers will likely suffer dropped calls, interrupted data sessions, and a generally poor user experience, while operators will suffer network instability, loss of efficient usage of the radio spectrum, and unhappy subscribers. And these requirements are going to be much tighter than existing 3GPP end-to-end time error budgets in the backhaul.
Successful mobile operators will use a combination of techniques to source and carry time, and so the secret to success is the selection of equipment with the flexibility to support various timing scenarios since one solution will hardly apply everywhere. GNSS receivers, particularly GPS from the United States, has historically been a very popular method for delivery of timing to the remote cell site, especially for: 1 large macro cells in open spaces, and 2 those radio systems where phase synchronization has long been a requirement CDMA or TDD radio.
Deploying an additional antenna at the top of the radio tower to receive the GPS signals was straightforward, the accuracy was first-class, and reliability very good. Frequently, this was an excellent solution. There are situations, however, where GNSS systems do not work that well: deployments in dense urban canyons cause coverage and multipath issues; they are costly to deploy in buildings requiring ducting access to the roof and it is very vulnerable to interference, jamming, and increasingly, spoofing.
With 5G increasing the radio density and expanding the in-building coverage, it is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to deploy GNSS receivers for more challenging locations. Therefore, for future deployments, the ability to deliver time via the transport network will be an essential component of advanced xHaul transport networks. Even if not the primary source of synchronization at the radio, using the transport network to deliver a secondary source of time from a remote GNSS receiver is a robust backup mechanism for when local GNSS signal outages occur.
For transport-based solutions, there are a limited number of viable options. In some cases where SyncE is not available, then PTP can be used to carry both phase and frequency, but it is not the optimal solution. Originally, the IEEE developed the PTP in response to broad industry and government need to enable accurate distribution of time and frequency over packet-based networks, in particular local area networks, such as across a factory floor.
Profiles allow any organization to specify a specific combination of PTP options and attribute values to support a given application. Most recently, the ITU-T developed two PTP profiles, shown in Figure 8, specifically designed to support the transport of frequency and phase synchronization for mobile backhaul networks.
These two profiles address two different network topologies and even specify different transport mechanisms, either layer 2 Multicast or layer 3 IP Unicast. They are:. Cisco develops our product range with all these goals in mind, and helps operators to build 5G-capable xHaul transport networks by incorporating the following timing and synchronization features into our transport products:. It is also gaining traction beyond pure networking, with the x-RAN organization using this mechanism to configure and store operational data associated with radio antennas.
In the networking space, there are a number of groups, such as the OpenConfig and the IETF, specifying standards-based models for networking functions, which can be deployed along with vendor-specific models. In order to improve network agility, Cisco has moved to a model-driven paradigm for configuration, while in order to enhance network visibility, Cisco is streaming operational data using telemetry. Telemetry is a mechanism to efficiently push data off the routers rather than pull or poll for it.
This enables the monitoring and analytics platforms to easily interpret and process the data, as illustrated in Figure 9. There is also an expectation from operators and their customers that complex changes—for example, setting up, changing, or removing a 5G network slice—can be done in minutes or even seconds in an error-free fashion.
Traditional configuration and operational data collection techniques, such as manual command-line interface CLI configuration of vendor-specific CLI combined with Simple Network Management Protocol SNMP polling, will not be able to deal with this level of change, nor maintain an accurate operational view of the network.
In addition to device-level functionality, it is important to have a central capability to orchestrate, manage, and automate the network. Orchestration and lifecycle management is done through NSO, which is an industry-leading, cross-domain orchestration platform for hybrid networks.
It provides comprehensive lifecycle service automation to enable you to design and deliver high-quality services faster and more easily across different domains, such as transport, network data center, and mobile core, all of which could be components of a 5G network slice. The orchestrator provides a single network-wide interface for all network devices and services, as well as a common modelling language and data store for both services and devices.
The service, for example a 5G slice, is specified as a semantic service model. This model combined with an NSO component, called the Service Manager, provides support for any service change, including arbitrary modifications in real time. NSO then renders the minimum configuration change for the devices to achieve the desired service state and applies these changes in a transaction-safe approach to the network functions. It is important to note that service orchestration is not solely about provisioning services; it also plays an important role in promoting adherence to SLAs.
As a vital part of the service orchestration, NSO provisions assurance systems, deploys virtual probes, etc. Cisco Crosswork and its associated applications bring closed-loop automation across the overall operation lifecycle. This solution is based on three main pillars:. Visibility is a key requirement for the management of segment routing. Within the solution, we provide the ability to discover the network status for each service, and render it logically as well as geographically for the operations team.
It provides views for Segment Routing overlay, Segment Routing policies, underlay network, as well as delivering aids and reports for the operator, which are key to avoiding issues or for expedited remediation when needed. To orchestrate a slice successfully requires tight coordination between these different domains, although these domains are very different in their functions, as are the tools needed to control and manage them.
In the xHaul transport network domain, this component is responsible for ensuring there is sufficient capacity on the network for the new or adapted slice and if there is, provisioning the service components, such as layer 2 and layer 3 VPN with associated QoS and SLA policies for the slice. It will consist of orchestration elements such as NSO with appropriate interfaces to capacity planning tools e. Cisco, as a long-term supplier to and supporter of the mobile communications industry, plans to build products to address the needs of the xHaul transport network with two major undertakings: software changes to address the required functionality and hardware features to enable and extend the software.
Although the details of these changes will be different depending on where in the network the devices are intended to be placed e. First, 5G promises to increase markedly the amount of bandwidth available to subscribers and so our platforms will need to address that via both an increase in interface speeds as well as by boosting the total switching capacity.
Additionally, lower latency applications require that the platforms in some locations switch those packets within strict timeframes, and therefore switch latency must satisfy this need. Besides the increased bandwidth and lower latency, the dimensions of 5G will continue to increase — in the density and sophistication of radios, the number of xHaul nodes, and end-user devices, requiring that the underlying devices support the desired scale, e. Because security starts with a chain of trust, and a chain of trust starts with trusted hardware, we plan to continue our market-leading support for security features in hardware.
This trusted platform then establishes a secure foundation for additional security services such as strong cryptographic protection for the embedded software, data held on the platform, and traffic on the interface links. Since segment routing is the key underpinning of the whole architecture, network devices obviously need strong support for a foundation of Segment Routing MPLS and Segment Routing v6 capabilities, and then construct robust QoS and VPN features upon that.
In order to support network slicing, devices must be programmable and automated, having comprehensive northbound and southbound integration points and APIs, e. Fronthaul will have a set of specific, specialized requirements since that is where the real-time and synchronization requirements are the strictest.
For this reason, features such as IEEE Time Sensitive Networking, which improves the performance of packet-based timing in the fronthaul, requires consideration for adoption in upcoming designs. Finally, in order to keep the operator informed about how their substantial investment is performing for their customers, the complete network must be clearly visible to the network management and telemetry systems being used to run it.
Not only must the devices support tools for monitoring the infrastructure layers such as the Segment Routing routing layer , tools must exist to monitor the performance of the over-the-top services, the network slices, and the end-user experience. We have seen how 5G will expand its capabilities in a multitude of directions that directly affects the underlying transport network.
Next-generation mobile networks will service much greater bandwidth, support many more end-user devices, contain many more radio nodes, and require support for very low-latency applications hosted in distributed network data centers. Furthermore, 5G evolves LTE-A toward increased virtualization, cloud-based RAN, packet-based midhaul and fronthaul networks, and tighter limits on phase and frequency synchronization.
It also introduces the concept of network slicing. More important are the commercial realities of operators, who are asked to satisfy increased user demand at ever-lower cost, while needing to manage increased complexity through simplicity with automation, telemetry, and orchestration. Crosswork Automation Closed-loop, outcome-driven software suite used to deliver efficient mass-scale network operations across the services lifecycle.
Featured products. Internet and Cloud Intelligence Instantly identify what is impacting user experiences across any domain, even those that you do not own or control. Cisco ThousandEyes Internet and Cloud Intelligence A combination of active and passive monitoring techniques plus real-time internet outage detection gives deep insight into user experience across the applications and services you deliver and consume.
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Cisco Prime Infrastructure Ideal for wired and wireless access, plus campus and branch networks Helps enable converged lifecycle management Provides application-assurance visibility and troubleshooting Simplifies compliance auditing. Cisco Prime Virtual Network Analysis Module vNAM Offers massive deployment flexibility Provides consistent visibility in physical, virtual, and cloud environments Helps improve operational agility, permitting rapid responses to new business demands Installs on x86 platforms with ESXi and KVM virtualization infrastructures.
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Network Services Orchestrator Multi-vendor, multi-domain network orchestration with programmable controls. Data Gateway Common multi-service data collector with integrated data policy controls. Cisco Prime Cable Provisioning A single platform for simplified management of cable subscriber devices and automated service provisioning.
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Network Automation Automate policy-based application profiles, allowing IT to respond rapidly to new business opportunities. Cisco Application Policy Infrastructure Controller APIC Unifying point of automation and management for the Application Centric Infrastructure fabric Open architecture to integrate Layer service, virtualization, and management vendors Intelligent telemetry and visibility for applications and tenants Provides security for multitenant environments at scale A common policy platform for physical, virtual, and cloud networking.
Data Center Management Save time, provide clear visibility, and strengthen control over operations. Cisco UCS Director Express for Big Data Automates Hadoop deployment for big-data infrastructure Offers a single management view for both hardware and Hadoop software Designed for high performance and massive scalability Customize by building your own add-ons or integrating with third-party solutions.
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Once an event is located, the detailed information for that event can be viewed as part of the next action. Subscribers will have different lookback periods based on the tier of subscription purchased. Each alarm event can be viewed in detail. The detailed forensic BGP update information can then be viewed to locate offending route change sources and to quickly identify the appropriate remediation action. A history of the frequency of each BGP event signature can then be compared to understand related route events for the same policy.
Features and benefits. Table 1. Lists the main features and benefits of the Crosswork Cloud Network Insights. Cloud Delivered. Easy to order, provision, and instantly available. Faster delivery o f ongoing innovation. Easier to integrate with other systems through APIs. Software as a Service SaaS.
Less technical and operational overhead needed to set up, operate, and maintain servers and software. Ability to seamlessly add capacity, scale, and features, securely and reliably. Frees you to focus on business objectives. Subscription Pricing. Flexibility of payments, with to month terms and annual renewals.
Ability to add capacity or term as needed to meet business requirements. Three subscription tiers:. Subscription tiers are based on the number of configured IP Prefixes to be monitored. Subscription tiers cannot be mixed in the same tenancy. External Route Analysis.
Analyze any IPv4 and IPv6 prefix regardless of paid subscription state. External Route Monitoring. Subscribe based on the number of IP prefixes to be monitored. Monitor your edge routing devices using BGP for out-of-band connectivity awareness.
AS Daily Routing Reports. Detailed sliding time series charts show subscribed ASNs and their properties, including. Alerts and Notifications:. BGP Prefix Monitoring. Dashboards that provide current and historical information for a set of subscribed prefixes.
Daily Prefix Routing Reports. Detailed sliding time series charts show subscribed Prefixes and their properties. Alarms and Notifications, including:. Per Prefix:. Remote monitor your peering router health and its adjacency through BGP connection. Detailed sliding time series charts showing peer statistics, including:. Data Learning Intelligence. Provides deeper insight into event correlation and root cause analysis.
Enables machine learning methods to be applied to various data and event inputs. Send alarms to external event management or AIOps platform for deeper learning. Collaboration Platform Integration. Collaboration platform notifications present a unique ability to send alarm notification events into an open channel with external parties to help validate and solve issues.
Traditional alarm notifications via:. Collaboration integration sends alarm notifications via:. API Framework. The platform can be integrated into other SDN platforms:. Configure all interface components, including. Role-Based Access Controls. Network Automation Integration. Trigger Per Prefix Automation Events using customizable criteria:. Products subscription tiers. Customers familiar with the BGPmon Premium service can purchase an equivalent service offering using the Crosswork Network Insights Essentials subscription tier.
This Essentials service provides approximate price and feature parity with the now end-of-sale BGPmon. The Crosswork Cloud Network Insights Advantage and Premier service tiers expand on the new platform to provide new insight and analysis capabilities. These new services provide expanded near real-time and historical state information for each monitored IP prefix. Unlike the basic tier service, these tiers will continue to be enhanced with new alarm, reporting, and analysis capabilities over time.
The primary difference between the Advantage Tier and the Premier Tier is the accessibility of historical route information and its use in event normalization. The following matrix details feature supported per subscripted tenancy and prefix options for Crosswork Network Insights. Table 2. Product subscription tiers.
Prefixes Limitation. Prefix State Lookup. Unlimited A. Configured Prefixes. As Purchased C. Basic Alarms. Prefix Withdrawal. Prefix Advertisement. Sub-Prefix Advertisement. AS Origin Violation. ROA Failure. ROA Expiry. Upstream AS Change. Unexpected AS Prefix. Parent Aggregate Change. AS Path Expression Match. Man in The Middle. Premium Alarms. AS Path Length Violation. Peer Device State Change. Peer Device Prohibited Prefix. General Features.
Intent-Based Policies. Alarm Details. Prefix Details. Prefix Looking Glass. ASN Details. ASN Looking Glass. ASN History Snapshot. Peermon Device Features. Peer Devices — Manage Existing. Peer Devices — Add New. Peer Device Details. Peer Device Looking Glass. Report Features. State Report — Prefixes. State Report — ASN. State Report — Peer Devices. Notification Endpoint Types. However I think you should do some research using a search engine e.
Duckduckgo and find out what is best for you. They are both good libraries but Pandas is the most popular. Add a comment. Sorted by: Reset to default. Highest score default Date modified newest first Date created oldest first. Improve this answer. Marko Toplak Marko Toplak 2 2 silver badges 3 3 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password.
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